History of Kabul
Kabul, the multicultural capital of Afghanistan and the largest city of the country,
is situated 1,800m above-sea-level in a valley, wedged between the Hindu Kush
mountains along the Kabul River. Kabul city is one of the 15 districts of Kabul
Province and itself has been divided to 18 city districts or boroughs. Kabul has long
been of strategic importance because of its proximity to the Khyber Pass and the
city is more than 3500 years old. In 1504, the first Mughal emperor, Babur, made it
the capital of his empire. Many years later, Timur Shah, the son of Ahmad Shah
Durrani, transferred the capital of Afghanistan from Kandahar to Kabul in 1776.
There are many places of interest in Kabul :
- The citadel of Bala Hissar : This old fortress was built at the 5th century.
Succeeding afghan kings alternately ruled from this place. It was destroyed during
the Second Anglo-afghan War.
- The mausoleum of Amir Abdul Rahman Khan in Zarnegar park (Adorned with
Gold) : The Iron Amir was buried in one of his ancient palace with a Mughal style.
- The mausoleum of Timur shah : the emperor Timur Shah was the son of the
emperor Ahmad Shah Durrani. He choosed Kabul as his new capital in 1776. The
construction of his mausoleum remained unfinished.
- The garden of Bagh-e Babur : the first Mughal emperor, Babur, was buried in his
favorite garden in Kabul.
- The Idgah Mosque : this mosque was built by the king Abdul Rahman Khan. The
most important speech of the king Amanullah Khan, concerning the Third
Anglo-Afghan War, took place in this place in 1919.
- The National museum.
- The palace of Bagh-e Bala : this building was an ancient palace of the Amir Abdul
- The Shah-Do-Shamsher Mosque (Mosque of the King of two swords) : an ancient
afghan legend relates the story of a muslim commander who fought against Hindu
warriors, with a sword in each hand although he had already lost his head.